Númenorean heraldic device

Realm of Númenor
City of Romenna, by Neral85



Yôzâyan ("the land of the gift"), also called Anadûnê (Ad. "Westernesse"), was a legendary nation established on the island of Elenna during the early Second Age. It is part of the folklore of all sea-faring peoples in the western Middle-earth and pivotal part of the religion in Gondor and Arnor, where it is known as Númenor. The name derives from Quenya, a High-elven tongue, used by the númenoreans on solemn occasions and for geographical designations. The native language of Númenor is called Adûnaic ("language of the west"). Númenor is described in few extant ancient writings: Akallabêth of Elendil, which summarizes its history and downfall; The Drowning of Anadûnê, Umbarean retelling of the same; A Description of the Island of Númenor collated from the royal archives of Gondor; and a fragmentary romance called Aldarion and Erendis, or The Mariner's Wife.
According to Elendil, Númenor was a naval power that conquered many parts of the western and southern Middle-earth 1,500 years before the founding of Gondor and Arnor. It was destroyed in a horrible cataclysm and sank into the ocean "in a single day and night of misfortune". The island was situated in the Belegaer, closer to the continent of Aman than to Middle-earth. In shape it resembled a five-pointed star, with five large peninsulas extending from the central region. The latter is stated to have been around 250 miles across, and promontories were nearly of the same length each. Total area of the island was 167,961 square milies.
The study of history of Númenor was allegedly suppressed in Gondor and Arnor because it was seen as a vain pursuit, "breeding only useless regret". Only one story from the legendary ancestral home of the Númenoreans remained generally known: the cautionary tale of the pride of Ar-Pharazôn and his "impious armada". Even the name of the island was shunned and was usually called Akallabêth ("the Downfallen"), Atalantë, or Mar-nu-Falmar ("home under waves"). Almost all of the pre-cataclysm literature and maps have vanished during the Third Age, along with most of the Númenorean technology, though some were later rediscovered. Men of Númenor introduced several plants and herbs that were not native to Middle-earth. These include tomatoes, potatoes, sweet galenas (tobacco), athelas and mallorn trees.
The exact location of the island remains uknown. According to 7th century Umbarean historiographer Imrukhôr,
"...there occurred portentous earthquakes and floods, and one grievous day and night befell them, when the island of Anadûnê was swallowed up by the sea and vanished; wherefore also the ocean at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, being blocked up by the shoal mud which the island created as it settled down."
Imrukhôr relates that in Númenor the sun appeared directly overhead at its zenith only during Erulaitalë celebrations, which would place the mountain of Meneltarma directly on the Tropic of Cancer.

Material remains

Numenorean carpets
A pair of Númenorean carpets preserved in Minas Anor, allegedly owned by King Anárion.

Remains in mythology

Remains in literature


 (image: http://lindefirion.net/maps/numenormap.jpg)
A map by Jacques Clavreul, re-titled

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