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>>""<div class="strike">Military of Umbar</div>""{{image title="Dúnadan line infantry" url="images/UmbarMilitary1.jpg"}}
//Royal army regiment, from [[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0167260/ Return of the King]].//
{{image title="Ambush in Harondor" url="images/HarondorAmbush.jpg"}}
//Ambush in Harondor, by [[http://merlkir.deviantart.com/ Jan Pospisil]].//
{{image title="Gondorian line infantry" url="images/UmbarMilitary2.jpg"}}
//Naval action between a xebec and a carrack//
""<div class="strike">Standards</div><table><tbody>
<tr>
<td><img src="http://lindefirion.net/wiki/images/flags/war_umbar_normal.png"></td>
<td><img src="http://lindefirion.net/wiki/images/flags/war_umbar_navy.png"></td>
<td><img src="http://lindefirion.net/wiki/images/flags/war_umbar_captain.png"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>War Standard</td>
<td>Navy Standard</td>
<td>Angamaitë</td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>""
""<div class="strike">Commanders (1640-1666)</div><table><tbody>
<tr>
<th style="padding-right: 1em;"><font size="2">Grand Admiral</font></th>
<td><font size="2">Angamaitë</font></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding-right: 1em;"><font size="2">Balîkattô (Admiral of the Fleet)</font></th>
<td><font size="2">Tarcundo Miruvor</font></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding-right: 1em;"><font size="2">Abârattô (General of the Army)</font></th>
<td><font size="2">Voronar Octesian</font></td>
</tr>
</tbody></table>"">>======Warcraft in Umbar======
//See also: [[GondorWarcraft Warcraft in Gondor]], [[KhandWarcraft Warcraft in Khand]]//

===HISTORY===

Standing professional army was first created in [[Gondor]] during the age of Ship-kings. It was instrumental in subduing the old Númenórean aristocracies and their military alliances in [[Umbar]], [[Pelargir]] and [[Anfalas]]. Advancement in the army was based on pay and personal merit, and the institution allowed formerly repressed underclasses access to military offices and achieve citizenship. As the conquests of the Ship-kings drew them into landward conflict with the rulers of Umbar and Haradwaith, the importance of a standing army increased.

Though it never eclipsed the pre-eminence of the fleets, the land forces were an essential component to effective naval warfare, which depended upon the Gondorian's army's ability to secure safe harborage and provisions. This system of Gondorian military recruitment and organization was implanted in Umbar when it was incorporated in the Gondorian realm. Former military traditions were dissolved, with the exception of the Umbar town guard and urban militia.

King **Ciryaher's** southern victories resulted in the expansion and strengthening of traditional Haruze clientage to Dúnadan power. Among other things, this process brought to prominence the use of Haruze auxiliaries among the hosts of Gondor. The size and composition of such companies varied according to the Haruze ruler that had supplied them, and their term of service was likewise determined by the specific pledges of friendship and alliance made to the King of Gondor by a given //tarb// or //amir//.

**Calimehtar** and his descendants cultivated their own military clients along the frontier regions that touched upon their own sphere of influence. The kingdoms and principalities of Near Harad (Korb Taskral, Chelkar, Pezarsan, Mardruak, Dûsalan and Hazaj Tollin), which greatly benefited from the royal fleet's protection of the southern trade routes from pirates and brigands, launched their own confederacy in support of Captain of Ships.

The Kin-Strife spelled the end of the traditional //Dúnadan// army. This force, dating back to the early days of the realm, lost its best soldiers and commanders in fighting. When the battered confederates slowly retreated to [[Harondor]] and [[Umbar]], they did not possess the time nor adequate resources to properly reconstruct the army. With [[Lebennin]] and the Anduin estuary, confederates lost their best manpower pools. Traditionalist faction had almost total naval superiority, but became increasingly dependable on Haradrim clients and allies on land.

===THE ARMIES OF UMBAR===

17th century Corsairs of Umbar considered themselves the legitimate continuation of the royal line of Anárion and the traditions of the Faithful. Not surprisingly, Umbarean armies were remarkably advanced. Élite regular foot companies descended from //Dúnadan// garrisons resident in [[Umbar]] and Harnendor before the civil war. However, the bulk of the army consisted of Haruze and mixed men descended from Haradan-Umbarean converts such as Umbar militia. Slavery had been prohibited during //Dúnadan// rule, but allied Haradan armies had slave-recruited guard units or //mamluks//. Castamirioni armies and guards of the Council of Captains also included //Dúnadan// mercenaries from the north. Their descendants still formed the core of the élite Umbarean regiment //Tirrim Tar-Calion// when king **Telumehtar Umbardacil** finally stormed the Haven in 1810.

>>{{image title="Umbarean thônzagari" url="images/Umbar_Houseknight.jpg"}}
//This household knight is showing the traditional//
//colours of House Marös, gold, black and white//
//chequerboard. He has probably mixed dúnadan//
//and eothraim ancestry (hence his red hair), but he //
//wears distinctively Haradan costume and arms.//
//Umbarean archer in his left has small composite//
//bow, large single-bladed knife, a cotton quilted//
//armour and a bundle of arrows tucked beneath //
//his belt.// [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angus_McBride Angus McBride]], 2001.>>Toward the end of the Castamirioni period, when grand-admiral **Angamaitë** ruled Umbar with dictatorial powers, greater numbers of //Narakshi// mamluks and mercenaries were recruited. Some of the latter came from the north but the great bulk were Haruze from Near Harad. Umbarean armies also attracted large numbers of volunteers. Similar sources of recruitment were available to the governors of frontier provinces, though here there were also volunteers and mercenaries from the Gondor's side of the frontier.

Payment reflected status, which in turn reflected origins - either descended from the ancient Númenórean settlers or from 'local' forces. Contingent commanders were responsible for informing the overall commander who had done well and deserved extra payment. Rewards and 'robes of honour' were given to the most deserving, but most troops relied on booty. A separate officer, //Dulgubar// (Ad.), was in charge of muster and review of the native Haradrim troops in the late 17th century, and efforts were made to keep newly recruited Haradrim mercanaries separate from older formations.

===DRESS AND EQUIPMENT===

While Haruze fashions were gradually adopted by the ruling and military élites of the Corsairs, Black Númenórean styles enjoyed only a temporary popularity in Umbar and hardly any in Harondor. Most of the old //adûnai// families had merged with the gondorian newcomers in the the preceding centuries.

The White Tree of the Faithful remained in the banners of a few confederate companies in [[Harondor]], but was otherwise replaced by the heraldic device of Umbar, the tengwarin letter U. Traditional troop colors were crimson and gold for Harondor, gold for Amrûn and red and black for Umbar. Independent armies of the oligarchic Council of Captains bore their respective markings and insignia. These were often extraordinarily varied and colourful.

Harnendor hills were rich in iron and Umbar was also well endowed with timber resources needed to work iron. Umbar produced most of the high class steel weapons it needed, but also imported sword blades from Raj, composite bows from Lurmsakun and Chy, spears and other items from as far away as Bulchyades and Sirayn. In return Umbar exported gilded and other armour to Near Harad and Bellakar, along with weapons and horse-harness.

Basically, corsair army used three types of sword. //Eket// was short and wide-bladed //Dúnadan// stabbing-sword, issued to all Umbarean foot soldiers. Only the knights and members of nobility were allowed to carry an //Anket// or longsword. The third type was the Haradan single-bladed, straight scimitar. Other blades were curved scimitars from Raj (//Faranj//), which were sometimes used by the mamluk forces, and navy falchions used by marines. Some were silvered, gilded, enamelled or jeweled while some had similarly decorated scabbards.

Bows were of the Haradan composite types. Though often regarded as inferior to the shorter, thicker and smoothly recurved Ioriag composite bow, these earlier Umbarean bows were more suited to archery on foot. Their angled ears provided substantial leverage and were consequently less tiring in situations where infantry archers had to maintain a much higher rate of shooting than did horse archers. Other weapons used by Corsair forces were cavalry axes and assorted forms of mace.

Armour included the common //Dúnadan// mail hauberk, the less common haradan or 'black númenorean' leather and iron lamellar cuirasses, and 'egg-like' lamellar helmets - sometimes gilded. //Dúnadan// winged steel helmets covered more of the neck, while marines and commanders used Númenorean-style Karma helmets. Mail hauberks were the most common form of armour, while a mail coif (Har. //mighfar//) covered the head except for the eyes. Gondorian texts of the period highlight the 'strange' costume of the Umbarean confederates, such as soft armour over a mail hauberk, baldrics supporting a large knife rather than a sword, and small horses with 'old fashioned' stirrups.

>>{{image title="Umbarean thônzagari" url="images/Umbar_Cavalry.jpg"}}
//Pictured here is a Haruze-born **Karbûzagar**//
//mounted soldier in the service of the//
//Umbarean army. Few haruze cavalrymen//
//would have been as well equipped as this//
//soldier, with his fully armoured horse. Under//
//a quilted //jubbah// made in the same manner//
//as the quilted horse armour he has a full mail//
//hauberk and coif. The rest of his arms, //
//armour and costume are a mixture of //
//Haradan and Dúnadan styles and traditions,//
//though with the strongest influence coming //
//from Near Harad.// [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angus_McBride Angus McBride]], 2001.>>===STRUCTURE OF THE ARMY===

After the dissolution of the [[UmbarRegencyCouncil Regency]], Umbarean [[UmbarCouncilCaptains Council of Captains]] adopted the use of //adûnaic// as their primary language. In //Dúnadan// households noldorin retained its rôle as a language of lore, but adûnaic and it's descendant, westron (Ad. '//Sôval phâre//') prevailed in every other way. Other Númenórean traditions surfaced as well. One source of cultural influence was Umbar's heretical neighbour, mixed númenorean-haradan realm of Bellakar.

Umbarean footsoldiers were divided to a hundred strong companies. Six companies formed a //Narad// (Ad. 'Cohort') and was led by a //Nardukhôr// (Ad. 'Captain of Infantry'). Light haruze cavalry was used in raiding and harassing the enemy, while Umbarean mounted sergeants (Ad. //Karbûzagar//) charged the enemy's rear with their lances. Cavalry squadrons were commanded by //Karubkhêrs// (Ad. 'Lord of the Horses'). Other ranks and offices were as follows:

~ //Zadanzagar// (Ad. 'Sword of the House') - A Household Knight in the oligarchic armies of Umbar.
~ //Zadanattô// (Ad. 'Father of the House') - Household Commander or head of the family.
~ //Thônzagar// (Ad. 'Sword of the Host') - A Knight in the regular army, usually fought dismounted.
~ //Thônabâr// (Ad. 'Lord of the Host') - Commander of the Regiment.
~ //Kadarattô// (Ad. 'Father of the City') - Burgomaster or Lord Mayor. Responsible for the civilian goverment.
~ //Kadurbâr// (Ad. 'Lord of the City') - Commander of the City Guard.
~ //Attabar / Abârattô// = (Ad. 'Father of the Strenght') = General of the Army.

The change that was apparent in Castamirioni strategy and tactics after the Kin-Strife can be described as a shift from an old Númenórean reliance on iron discipline and drilling to a more Haradan emphasis on clever generalship. Subterfuge, concealment, rapid movement and skullduggery were the chief weapons of a Umbarean general. It is worth remembering that most of [[Sangahyandion Sangahyandion's]] brilliant campaigns in [[Harondor]] were conducted against a numerically superior foe. About one half of the Umbarean land foces were in direct control of the Castamirioni dynasty and their relatives. Other half was divided among several oligarchs, and their disunity and petty conspiracies often played in the hand of the Gondorians. Apart from the Castamirioni army in Harondor and the six Captains' Hosts, there were Territorial Corps in Harnendor and Dûsalan, Garrison in Umbar and separate, small mercanary armies operating in the desert frontiers.

===UMBAREAN ARMED FORCES IN ACTION===
//Full articles: [[FirstCorsairWar First Corsair War (1540-1551)]] - [[PelargirRaid Sack of Pelargir (1634)]] - [[SecondCorsairWar Second Corsair War (1633-1638)]] - [[ThirdCorsairWar Third Corsair War (1652-1666)]]//


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~& CategoryUmbar, CategoryEncyclopaedia
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