Revision [1938]

This is an old revision of UmbarCity made by SampsaRydman on 2007-11-24 01:42:04.


Haven of Umbar
Capital of the State of Umbar
The Halls of Tar-Calion
The Red Tower
Typical haradan tavern in Umbar
Drawing of Umbar from the Sea
800 T.A. 30 000
1200 T.A. 45 000
1450 T.A. 60 000
1600 T.A. 90 000
1650 T.A. 80 000
1810 T.A. 45 000
1944 T.A. 50 000
Places in Umbar


  Inns & Lodging

Haven of Umbar

The City of Umbar was founded in the middle of the Second Age, and it later became the chief Númenórean stronghold in Endor. Two excellent harbours and its proximity to landward trade routes ensure that the port grew quickly, despite the limits of its agricultural hinterland. Umbar is the most ancient continuously inhabited dwelling of Men in Middle-earth.


Umbar is home to nearly 90,000 people, majority of whom are of Númenórean descent. Many have either haradan blood in their veins or are related to the native rural sakalai. According to the 1655 survey, there are still about 6,000 citizens of pure Númenorean ancestry, whether of Faitful or King's Men extraction (intermarriage between families has been quite common during last five centuries), and 24,000 adûnai. The Umbarean elite under Castamirioni rule is almost completely comprised of exiled Gondorian families. The rest are southrons: Haruze artisans, immigrant Bellakarians or even mercenaries from the Raj.

Development of the City

The original Númenórean city was surrounded by a wall in II 2280, as was the town of Vinyamar. Most of the haven's extant Númenórean fortifications date to the era of Ar-Pharazôn the Golden, who constructed a second wall (still visible) around Vinyamar during the war against Sauron. After the capture of the haven by Eärnil, several more fortifications were built, and the walls of the city and the town were rebuilt in a more modern gondorian style.

Umbarean houses are designed to allow for a maximum living space in the smallest possible area of land, averaging in three or four stories in height (altough most wealthier citizens own houses with private courtyards). Domiciles outside the second wall are generally more spacious. Many private residences in Umbar possessed rainwater cisterns; the city itself has a large cistern system, fed by several local artesian wells and an underground pipeline, the best existing example of Númenórean genius. The main cistern of Umbar lies beneath the city's central market place.


Umbar was the largest and richest urban centre in the western Middle-earth during the Second and early Third Age, mostly due to its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Raj and the Belfalas. After the Akallabêth, it would remain the capital of the southern, adûnaic-speaking Realm of Exile over an eight centuries. As the capital of the Umbar State, the adûnai called it simply "the City" (Kadar) or "the Haven" (Lôni). After Gondorian conquest, it became the second richest and largest city in the realm. Visitors and merchants were especially struck by the beautiful palaces and courtyards, particularly the Halls of Tar-Calion. During Umbar's second independence under Castamirioni dynasty, it became a powerful symbol of wondrous majesty and Númenórean nostalgia.


The self-government of Umbar was established by king Hyarmendacil I of Gondor in 1050. The privileges of the elective council were later extended under the reigns of Atanatar II and Calmacil, and reached a par with Pelargir. The civil affairs of Umbar are managed by a Grand Council, whose seventy-two members are elected by the most politically important guilds of the city. These guilds are divided into major, minor and artisan groups (as in Pelargir) for purposes of representation. The five richest and most prominent guilds - the goldsmiths, shipwrights, captains and silkmerchants - appoint four councillors each, while the eight minor and fourteen artisan guilds elect three and two councillors each respectively.

Umbarean heads of state during Castamirioni period are two officials called Asapthubêths (Judges or Consuls) of Umbar, elected by the Assembly, and granted authority to sign and negotiate treaties with foreign princes. Most of the time, the Consuls were elected annually from among the most wealthy and influential families and ruled collegially. The Asapthubêths exercise judicial and executive power, but not military.

Compared to Pelargir or Linhir, where major guilds utterly dominated the council, umbarean government was more republican in character, but when the Regency Council was dissolved in III 1470, the haven succumbed under the rule of Oligarchs of Nen Umbar, called the Council of Captains, and the Grand Council and Assembly of Citizens gradually lost most of its political power. A special electorate council of twenty-one menbers, who are themselves elected by the guilds, appoints city officials, with the exception of the position of condir, who is appointed by the Asapthubêths from among six candidates nominated by the electorate council. All council appointments are annual.

The most important civic official in Umbar is the condir (or Kadarattô in adûnaic), who heads the city's administration and acts as a president of the city court, in which capacity he is assisted by four judges (two appointed by the electorate council and two by the assembly). Other important city officials include the treasurer, the harbour-masters, and the captain of the Watch, all of whom are elected annually, just as with the council.

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