Revision [1929]

This is an old revision of UmbarCity made by SampsaRydman on 2007-11-23 21:18:31.


Haven of Umbar
Capital of the State of Umbar
The Halls of Tar-Calion
The Red Tower
Typical haradan tavern in Umbar
Drawing of Umbar from the Sea
800 T.A. 30 000
1200 T.A. 45 000
1450 T.A. 60 000
1600 T.A. 90 000
1650 T.A. 80 000
1810 T.A. 45 000
1944 T.A. 50 000
Places in Umbar


  Inns & Lodging

Haven of Umbar

The City of Umbar was founded in the middle of the Second Age, and it later became the chief Númenórean stronghold in Endor. Two excellent harbours and its proximity to landward trade routes ensured that the port grew quickly, despite the limits of its agricultural hinterland. Umbar is the most ancient continuously inhabited dwelling of Men in Middle-earth.

Development of the City

The original Númenórean city was surrounded by a wall in II 2280, as was the town of Vinyamar. Most of the haven's extant Númenórean fortifications date to the era of Ar-Pharazôn the Golden, who constructed a second wall (still visible) around Vinyamar during the war against Sauron. After the capture of the haven by Eärnil, several more fortifications were built, and the walls of the city and the town were rebuilt in a more modern gondorian style.

Umbarean houses are designed to allow for a maximum living space in the smallest possible area of land, averaging in three or four stories in height (altough most wealthier citizens own houses with private courtyards). Domiciles outside the second wall are generally more spacious. Many private residences in Umbar possess rainwater cisterns; the city itself has a large cistern system, in the event of siege, which is fed by several local artesian wells and an underground pipeline, the best existing example of Númenórean genius. The main cistern of Umbar lies beneath the city's central market place.



Constantinople was the largest and richest urban centre in the Eastern Mediterranean during the late Roman Empire, mostly due to its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean and the Black Sea. After the fourth century, when Emperor Constantine I relocated his eastern capital to Byzantium, it would remain the capital of the eastern, Greek speaking empire for over a thousand years. As the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (now commonly known as the Byzantine Empire), the Greeks called Constantinople simply "the City", while throughout Europe it was known as the "Queen of Cities." In its heyday, roughly corresponding to what are now known as the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and dominating economic life in the Mediterranean. Visitors and merchants were especially struck by the beautiful monasteries and churches of the city, particularly Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom. A Russian 14th-century traveller, Stephen of Novgorod, wrote, "As for St Sophia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make description of it". The cumulative influence of the city on the west, over the many centuries of its existence, is incalculable. In terms of technology, art and culture, as well as sheer size, Constantinople was without parallel anywhere in Europe for a thousand years.

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