Haven of Umbar
Capital of the State of Umbar
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The Halls of Tar-Calion
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The Red Tower
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Typical haradan tavern in Umbar
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Drawing of Umbar from the Sea
Population
800 T.A. 30 000
1200 T.A. 45 000
1450 T.A. 60 000
1600 T.A. 120 000
1650 T.A. 90 000
1810 T.A. 80 000
1944 T.A. 50 000
Location
 (image: http://wiki.lindefirion.net/images/UmbarLocation.jpg)
Places in Umbar

MAP LEGEND

  Government
  Guildhouse
  Warehouse
  Industrial
  Traders
  Artisans
  Inns & Lodging
  Entertainment
  Manors
  Residential

 (image: http://wiki.lindefirion.net/images/UmbarOldHarbour.jpg)
 (image: http://wiki.lindefirion.net/images/UmbarStreets.jpg)

Haven of Umbar


The City of Umbar was founded in the middle of the Second Age, and it later became the chief Númenórean stronghold in Endor. Two excellent harbours and its proximity to landward trade routes ensured that the port grew quickly, despite the limits of its agricultural hinterland. Umbar is the most ancient continuously inhabited dwelling of Men in Middle-earth. It is the capital of the State of Umbar.

Population


Umbar is home to nearly 90,000 people, majority of whom are of Númenórean descent. Many have either haradan blood in their veins or are related to the native rural sakalai. According to the 1655 survey, there are still about 6,000 citizens of pure Númenorean ancestry, whether of Faithful or King's Men extraction (intermarriage between families has been quite common during last five centuries), and 24,000 adûnai. The Umbarean elite under Castamirioni rule is almost completely comprised of exiled Gondorian families. The rest are southrons: Haruze artisans, immigrant Bellakarians or even mercenaries from the Raj.

Development of the City


The original Númenórean city was surrounded by a wall in II 2280, as was the town of Vinyamar. Most of the haven's extant Númenórean fortifications date to the era of Ar-Pharazôn the Golden, who constructed a second wall (still visible) around Vinyamar during the war against Sauron. After the capture of the haven by Eärnil, several more fortifications were built, and the walls of the city and the town were rebuilt in a more modern Gondorian style.

Umbarean houses are designed to allow for a maximum living space in the smallest possible area of land, averaging in three or four stories in height (although most of the wealthier citizens own houses with private courtyards). Domiciles outside the second wall are generally more spacious. Many private residences in Umbar possessed rainwater cisterns; the city itself has a large cistern system, fed by several local artesian wells and an underground pipeline, the best existing example of Númenórean genius. The main cistern of Umbar lies beneath the city's central market place.

Culture


Umbar was the largest and richest urban centre in the western Middle-earth during the Second and early Third Age, mostly due to its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Raj and the Belfalas. After the Akallabêth, it would remain the capital of the southern, adûnaic-speaking Realm of Exile for eight centuries. As the capital of the Umbar State, the adûnai called it simply "the City" (Kadar) or "the Haven" (Lôni). After Gondorian conquest, it became the second richest and largest city in the realm. Visitors and merchants were especially struck by the beautiful palaces and courtyards, particularly the Halls of Tar-Calion. During the second independence under Castamirioni dynasty, Umbar became a powerful symbol of wondrous majesty and Númenórean nostalgia.

Cuisine


The cuisine of Umbar shows traces of all the cultures which established themselves on the Haven over the last two millennia. Especially Haradan influence has been strong in its dishes, for example, the use of apricots, sugar, citrus, sweet melons, rice, saffron, raisins, nutmeg, clove, pepper, pine nuts, cinnamon, along with fried preparations. In the more traditionally-minded Vinyamar, fish, olives, broad beans and fresh vegetables are preferred instead. Much of the haven's cuisine encourages the use of fresh vegetables (such as eggplant, peppers and tomatoes brought by Númenóreans) and fish such as tuna, sea bream, sea bass, cuttlefish, swordfish and other seafood available off the coastline.

Government


The self-government of Umbar was established by king Hyarmendacil I of Gondor in 1050. The privileges of the elective council were later extended under the reigns of Atanatar II and Calmacil, and reached a par with Pelargir. The civil affairs of Umbar are managed by a Grand Council, whose seventy-two members are elected by the most politically important guilds of the city. These guilds are divided into major, minor and artisan groups (as in Pelargir) for purposes of representation. The five richest and most prominent guilds - the goldsmiths, shipwrights, captains and silkmerchants - appoint four councillors each, while the eight minor and fourteen artisan guilds elect three and two councillors each respectively.

Umbarean heads of state during Castamirioni period are two officials called Asapthubêths (Judges or Consuls) of Umbar, elected by the Assembly, and granted authority to sign and negotiate treaties with foreign princes. Most of the time, the Consuls were elected annually from among the most wealthy and influential families and ruled collegially. The Asapthubêths exercise judicial and executive power, but not military.

Compared to Pelargir or Linhir, where major guilds utterly dominated the council, Umbarean government was more republican in character, but when the Regency Council was dissolved in III 1470, the haven succumbed under the rule of Oligarchs of Nen Umbar, called the Council of Captains, and the Grand Council and Assembly of Citizens gradually lost most of its political power. A special electorate council of twenty-one members, who are themselves elected by the guilds, appoints city officials, with the exception of the position of condir, who is appointed by the Asapthubêths from among six candidates nominated by the electorate council. All council appointments are annual.

The most important civic official in Umbar is the condir (or Kadarattô in adûnaic), who heads the city's administration and acts as a president of the city court, in which capacity he is assisted by four judges (two appointed by the electorate council and two by the assembly). Other important city officials include the treasurer, the harbour-masters, and the captain of the Watch, all of whom are elected annually, just as with the council.

The Tower Families


The Council of Captains is responsible for trade relations, foreign policy, and warcraft in the Umbar State. As such they are not concerned of the day-to-day managing of the haven, but seldom have their wishes been unfulfilled. However clear the system of government seems on paper, in practice every decision depends on a distinct and shady system of honours and clientage. Virtually every umbarean is a client of somebody, and is expected to honour him by making visits and fulfilling his wishes. In return the client expects protection. At the top of the pyramid, there is a dozen families or clans, who run the country and city. In local vernacular they are called "the Tower Families".

There are six great towers in Umbar: Seaward, Westerly, Red, Flame, Dawn and Fasthold. They belong to the Oligarchs of Marös, Pellardur, Isigir, Erädas, Ardûmir and Caldûr respectively. Only the lords of Marös and Pellardur live permanently in the Haven, others stay when they have business in Umbar or the Council of Captain convenes. The whole old city has been divided between the clients of these great families; only the Vinyamar district enjoys less strict modes of conduit. The Men of Honour, who make up the great families, are sworn to protect the Umbarean people, but honour can be lost very quickly in the byzantine game of Umbarean underground politics.

The Great Families





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