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- That God has given the people of Númenor thrice great power and longevity than common men, and this gift is linked to the continuing observation of the religious rites of the Faithful and survival of the the divine bloodline of Elros, and that gift could be taken away because of the sins of Men.
In keeping with the commandments of the **//Balâi//** (Valar), Númenórean monotheism had centered tightly on religious practices at the Hallow of Meneltarma. However, after the Downfall, Númenóreans were deprived of a central place of worship and religious activity, were unable to fulfill the practices mandated in the [[GondorPoliticalOrganization Law of the Seven Tablets]], and were scattered around the world. Those men of Westernesse, who did not belong to the Faithful, and repudiated the claims of Elendil, had to devise new ways of sacred observance.
Deletions:
- That God has given the people of Númenor thrice great power and longevity than common men, and this gift is linked to the continuing observation of the religious rites of the Faithful and survival of the the divine bloodline line of Elros, and that gift could be taken away because of the sins of the Men.
In keeping with the commandments of the **//Balâi//**, Númenórean monotheism had centered tightly on religious practices at the Hallow of Meneltarma. However, after the Downfall, Númenóreans were deprived of a central place of worship and religious activity, were unable to fulfill the practices mandated in the [[GondorPoliticalOrganization Law of the Seven Tablets]], and were scattered around the world. Those men of Westernesse, who did not belong to the Faithful, and repudiated the claims of Elendil, had to devise new ways of sacred observance.


Revision [5212]

Edited on 2015-11-18 12:47:20 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was **Eä**. The World (Q. //Arda//) is part of //Eä//, the universe of all which exists. It was first brought into existence with the //Music of the Ainur//, for the purpose of creating a home for the Children of God. Arda consists of the Earth, its atmosphere, and the celestial objects, including the separate Undying Lands of Aman. The term for the Earth itself is //Ambar//. In [[Languages Adûnaic]] the world was called //Kamât, Daira// or //Aban//. The atmosphere is divided into //Vista//, the breathable "lower" air and //Ilmen//, the "upper" air or space, where planets and stars exist.
Deletions:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was **Eä**. The World (Q. //Arda//) is part of //Eä//, the universe of all which exists. It was first brought into existence with the //Music of the Ainur//, for the purpose of creating a home for the Children of God. Arda consists of the Earth, its atmosphere, and the celestial objects, including the separate Undying Lands of Aman. The term for the Earth itself is Ambar. In [[Languages Adûnaic]] the world was called //Kamât, Daira// or //Aban//. The atmosphere is divided into //Vista//, the breathable of "lower" air and //Ilmen//, the "upper" air or space, where planets and stars exist.


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~"The fëa is indestructible, a unique identity which cannot be disintegrated or absorbed into any other identity."
~– //Commentary on the Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth//.


Revision [4711]

Edited on 2011-06-15 11:29:06 by SampsaRydman
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– //The Book of Lost Tales//
– //Valaquenta//
– //The Music of the Ainur//
//See also: [[GondorPoliticalOrganization Sacred Order]], [[UnatiAxani Únati and Axani]]//
[[UnatiAxani There are more about]] the //únati// ("impossibilities") and //axani// ("immoralities").
– //Drowning of Anadúnë, Umbarean edition of Akallabêth, annotated by Kheruzîr Azrubêl in III 992.//
– // Conversation between Izindubêth and Artârik, from the Recitations//
– //Chronicle of Bellakar, 842.//
Deletions:
– ''//The Book of Lost Tales//''
– ''//Valaquenta//''
– ''//The Music of the Ainur//''
//See also: [[GondorPoliticalOrganization Sacred Order]]//
====Folk religion in Gondor====
– ''//Drowning of Anadúnë, Umbarean edition of Akallabêth, annotated by Kheruzîr Azrubêl in III 992.//''
– ''// Conversation between Izindubêth and Artârik, from the Recitations//''
– ''//Chronicle of Bellakar, 842.//''


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>>{{image url="images/Ambar.jpg" title="Painting by Leonid Korablev"}}>>===CREATION===
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>>{{image url="images/Ambar.jpg" title="Ambar"}}>>===CREATION===


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>>{{image url="images/Ambarkanta1.jpg" link="http://lindefirion.net/maps/Ambarkanta1.jpg" title="Ambarkanta"}}>>===ARDA MARRED===
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>>{{image url="images/Ambarkanta1.jpg" link="http://lindefirion.net/maps/Ambarkanta1.jpg title="Ambarkanta"}}>>===ARDA MARRED===


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>>{{image url="images/Ambarkanta1.jpg" link="http://lindefirion.net/maps/Ambarkanta1.jpg title="Ambarkanta"}}>>===ARDA MARRED===
**Arda Unmarred** (Q. //Arda Alahasta//) is the original world as devised by the Valar, which was effectively destroyed by Melkor.
Deletions:
===ARDA MARRED===
>>{{image url="images/Taniquetil.jpg" title="Taniquetil"}}>>**Arda Unmarred** (Q. //Arda Alahasta//) is the original world as devised by the Valar, which was effectively destroyed by Melkor.


Revision [4226]

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Additions:
In the "Drowning of Anadúnë", an ancient apographa, the //nimir// (eldar) had come to the Adûnaim and expressly taught that the world was of its nature round (//'as an apple it hangeth on the branches of heaven'//), but Zigur (Sauron) coming had gainsaid it ('//the world was not a circle closed//'). It can be deduced that the author knows that the world is of its nature a globe; but very few of the Adûnaim had believed this teaching until the voyages of the survivors of the Downfall taught them that it was true. Umbrean mariners were the first ones to perceive the spherical shape of the earth, although first circumnavigation is usually attributed to Atandil (Anîzîr) of Anadúnë. According to //"Parma gaudion"// (S. Book of machines), another Umbarean apographa, Umbarean //Adûnaim// also built ships that could sail in the "heavy air" and landed in the newly-found western continent or "dark lands", inhabited by savages, and were revered as gods and kings.
While most of the coastal people of Harad have converted into Númenórean monotheism, there are still fierce enclaves of Haruze polytheism. The most important these pagan beliefs is the bronze-age cult of the Three Sisters (or "Veiled Goddess"). They are triune of female deities once widely worshipped in all Harad: **Ishtra**, goddess of love and sea; **Ladnoca**, goddess of fertility, and **Manat**, goddess of memory and death.
Deletions:
In the "Drowning of Anadúnë", an ancient apographa, the //nimir// (eldar) had come to the Adûnaim and expressly taught that the world was of its nature round (//'as an apple it hangeth on theb ranches of heaven'//), but Zigur (Sauron) coming had gainsaid it ('//the world was not a circle closed//'). It can be deduced that the author knows that the world is of its nature a globe; but very few of the Adûnaim had believed this teaching until the voyages of the survivors of the Downfall taught them that it was true. Umbrean mariners were the first ones to perceive the spherical shape of the earth, although first circumnavigation is usually attributed to Atandil (Anîzîr) of Anadúnë. According to //"Parma gaudion"// (S. Book of machines), another Umbarean apographa, Umbarean //Adûnaim// also built ships that could sail in the "heavy air" and landed in the newly-found western continent or "dark lands", inhabited by savages, and were revered as gods and kings.
While most of the coastal dwellers of Harad have converted into Númenórean monotheism, there are still fierce enclaves of Haruze polytheism. The most important these pagan beliefs is the bronze-age cult of the Three Sisters (or "Veiled Goddess"). They are triune of female deities once widely worshipped in all Harad: **Ishtra**, goddess of love and sea; **Ladnoca**, goddess of fertility, and **Manat**, goddess of memory and death.


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In the Silmarillion, elves do not die of disease or of old age. However, elves may be slain or lose the will to live, for instance because of grief. When an elf dies, the //fëa// leaves the //hröa//, which then "dies". The //fëa// is summoned to the Halls of Mandos, where it is judged; however as with death their free-will is not taken away, they could refuse the summons. If allowed by Mandos, the //fëa// may be re-embodied into a new body that is identical to the previous //hröa// (according to [[Literature Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth]], it may also re-enter the incarnate world through child-birth). A //fëa// may decide to stay in the Halls of Mandos, or it may be denied re-embodiment. This would normally only occur if it had done much evil (or those Ñoldor under the Doom of Mandos). In such a case the //fëa// might have to wait very long or might never be allowed to leave Mandos. In Arnorian folklore, Fëanor is doomed to be the gatekeeper, constantly ferrying new souls to Mandos.
Deletions:
In the Silmarillion, elves do not die of disease or of old age. However, elves may be slain or lose the will to live, for instance because of grief. When an elf dies, the //fëa// leaves the //hröa//, which then "dies". The //fëa// is summoned to the Halls of Mandos, where it is judged; however as with death their free-will is not taken away, they could refuse the summons. If allowed by Mandos, the //fëa// may be re-embodied into a new body that is identical to the previous //hröa// (according to [[Literature Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth]], it may also re-enter the incarnate world through child-birth). A //fëa// may decide to stay in the Halls of Mandos, or it may be denied re-embodiment. This would normally only occur if it had done much evil (or those Ñoldor under the Doom of Mandos). In such a case the //fëa// might have to wait very long or might never be allowed to leave Mandos. In Arnorian folklore, Fëanor is doomed to be the guardian of Halls, ferrying souls to Mandos.


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Additions:
**Eru** (Q. "The One"), also called //Ilúvatar// (Q, "Allfather"), is the name of the supreme God in north-western Middle-earth. He is the single omnipotent creator, but, according to most beliefs, has delegated most direct action to the //Ainur// (angelic spirits), including the shaping of the World itself. God created Elves and Men, without delegation to the Ainur. Therefore they are called "Children of Ilúvatar" (Ad. //Eruhini//). Common belief among men is that Eru would someday enter World to save his Children (reflected, for example, in //[[Literature Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth]]//). In [[Umbar]] and [[Bellakar]], God is called //Êru//. Among the puritan Faithful congregations even the use of Êru is considered impious in any other contexts than the thrice a year prayers.
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was **Eä**. The World (Q. //Arda//) is part of //Eä//, the universe of all which exists. It was first brought into existence with the //Music of the Ainur//, for the purpose of creating a home for the Children of God. Arda consists of the Earth, its atmosphere, and the celestial objects, including the separate Undying Lands of Aman. The term for the Earth itself is Ambar. In [[Languages Adûnaic]] the world was called //Kamât, Daira// or //Aban//. The atmosphere is divided into //Vista//, the breathable of "lower" air and //Ilmen//, the "upper" air or space, where planets and stars exist.
>>{{image url="images/SecretFire.jpg" title="Flame Imperishable, by Tinfang Norlam"}}>>===FLAME IMPERISHABLE===
In //[[Literature Quenta Silmarillion]]// and other mythological texts of the Faithful, **The Secret Fire** and **Flame Imperishable** are references to the life-giving power imparted to the world by Eru Ilúvatar, the divine "spark" of life. Melkor, desiring power equal to Ilúvatar, sought for it in vain. Melkor's desire for the Secret Fire led to his rebellion against Ilúvatar. It is part of the //Nimruzîrian Trinity// (The Word [Eä], The Father [Ilúvatar] and The Secret Flame), a concept devised in Númenor about the triune but inseparable nature of the Godhead. The Flame Imperishable is a central concept in some mystical sects and secret societies, such as the //Tindómë-Lië// (Golden Dawn) and the Sons of Men (Order of the Red Hand or //Côr Carammaitë//).
===FËA AND HRÖA, LIFE AFTER DEATH===
**Fëa and hröa** are elvish words for "soul" and "body". The plural forms are //fëar// and //hröar//.
The Children of Ilúvatar are described as existing as two parts: they have a "spirit" or "soul" called //fëa//, and a body or //hröa// which is made out of the matter of Arda (//erma//); for this reason //hröar// are Marred (or, using another expression, contain a "Melkor ingredient"). According to elven lore, the //fëa// is powerless without the //hröa//, and likewise the //hröa// would die without the //fëa//.
In the Silmarillion, elves do not die of disease or of old age. However, elves may be slain or lose the will to live, for instance because of grief. When an elf dies, the //fëa// leaves the //hröa//, which then "dies". The //fëa// is summoned to the Halls of Mandos, where it is judged; however as with death their free-will is not taken away, they could refuse the summons. If allowed by Mandos, the //fëa// may be re-embodied into a new body that is identical to the previous //hröa// (according to [[Literature Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth]], it may also re-enter the incarnate world through child-birth). A //fëa// may decide to stay in the Halls of Mandos, or it may be denied re-embodiment. This would normally only occur if it had done much evil (or those Ñoldor under the Doom of Mandos). In such a case the //fëa// might have to wait very long or might never be allowed to leave Mandos. In Arnorian folklore, Fëanor is doomed to be the guardian of Halls, ferrying souls to Mandos.
The situation of Men is different. Immediately after death, the //fëa// departs to Mandos where it undergoes judgement in which the soul's eternal destiny is specified. According to dualist interpretations of the Númenórean faith common in [[Umbar]] and [[Bellakar]], the virtuous are immediately and eternally united with God in the Timeless Halls, others are destined to be purged from their wrong deeds in Mandos. There is no orthodoxy how long mannish souls should remain in the Halls of Mandos. It is universally accepted that mannish //fëar// have Free Will and thus as able to escape Arda completely to be united with God, whereas Elves are bound by Fate to remain in Arda even after death. Some believe that those who refuse the Love of God, and do not wish to leave Arda, descend into **//Udûn//** (Hell) to be thralls of Morgoth until the Second Prophecy is fulfilled and World is made Anew.
Not only the Children of Ilúvatar possess souls: they are also granted to some animals, ents and dwarves.
===ARDA MARRED===
In the beginning, the angelic spirits were invited to enter into the world to participate more closely in its ordering and unfolding. **Melkor** incarnated himself permanently within the world in the attempt to dominate and control matter. He impressed himself totally upon the world, and the world bears his imprint to the extent that he himself is dissipated in the process. Morgoth disseminated his vast power into the world itself with the result that the whole of Middle-earth was "Morgoth's Ring". This means that evil cannot simply be overcome by force without destroying creation, which is in effect to do evils work.
>>{{image url="images/Taniquetil.jpg" title="Taniquetil"}}>>**Arda Unmarred** (Q. //Arda Alahasta//) is the original world as devised by the Valar, which was effectively destroyed by Melkor.
**Arda Marred** (Q. //Arda Hastaina//) is the name given to the world as it is: the world after the dispersing of Melkor's //fëa// in the entire world. It is this world from which are formed the //hröa// of the Children of Ilúvatar, and therefore it is a cruel and evil world with plagues, famines, extreme colds, heat, and other concepts which do not exist in Arda Unmarred. In Arda Marred all spirits will slowly fade, until at last they are naught but wraiths. One of the special abilities of the Three Rings was that they could delay time, and as such were used by Elrond and Galadriel to preserve their realms.
**Arda Healed** (Q. //Arda Envinyanta//). After the Dagor Dagorath, Melkor will be destroyed, and the world broken; a new world will then be created by Iluvatar with all his Children, which will be Arda Healed. This world will resemble Arda Unmarred, but will be even better, since it will also incorporate all the good aspects of Arda Marred.
**The Second Prophecy of Mandos** describes the end of the world, called //Dagor Dagorath// (S. "The Final Battle") as believed by elves and men of Númenor. The Later Silmarillion (//Vinyar Silmarillion//) ends with a prophecy by Mandos about the Dagor Dagorath, which is omitted from the late Númenórean edition. In //Akallabêth//, Elendil prophesied that Ar-Pharazôn and his mortal warriors who had set foot on Aman were buried in the Caves of the Forgotten until the "Last Battle and Day of Doom", when they would have to choose between Ilúvatar and Melkor.
There are several versions of the Prophecy, but all concur that Melkor will discover how to break the Door of Night, and will destroy the Sun and the Moon. For the love of these, Eärendil will return from the sky and shall meet Tulkas, Eönwë , and Túrin Turambar on the plains of Valinor. All peoples of Middle-earth will participate in this final battle, elves, men and dwarves alike. There the forces of the Valar shall fight against Melkor, who will have resurrected many of his old followers, including Sauron. Ar-Pharazôn and all his men will be released from their eternal prison. Tulkas will wrestle with Melkor, Eönwe will wound him, and it will be by the hand of reborn Túrin Turambar that finally death and destruction will be dealt to Melkor. Túrin will run his reforged black sword Gurthang through Melkor's heart, thus avenging the Children of Húrin and all Men. Then mountains will be levelled, the three Silmarils will be recovered from the earth, sea, and sky, and Fëanor's spirit shall be released from the halls of Mandos to give them to Yavanna, who will break them and rekindle the light. Following this, there will be a Second Music of the Ainur. This song will sing into being a new world, and Men will sing it with the Ainur.
- According to [[Bellakar Bellakarian]] tradition //an-Adûna// is a person who speaks //adûnaic //as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the //[[PoliticalParties Ârûwanâi]]//, regardless of ethnic origin.
//See also: [[GondorPoliticalOrganization Sacred Order]]//
Although every //Dúnadan// is Faithful, not every Faithful is //Dúnadan//. The Faithful community in theory encompasses all the various subject peoples and commoners who subscribe to the Faithful ideology. However, in practice the Faithful are by its very nature exclusive group reserved for men of Númenórean ancestry. Beliefs of the Elendili are written in the Silmarillion and Akallabêth, two main mythological texts in Gondor. Main tenets of the Elendili are:
- That there is **One God**, //Eru Ilúvatar//, who is the Creator of Eä, the World That Is, and everything in it.
- That Valar are the caretakers of the world, exalted angels and stewards of Eru, and the elves are their children. They are patrons of the Númenórean race, forever deserving of homage. They are not to be worshipped //per se//, but they can act as an intermediary between Men and God.
- That men shall not build temples nor any other edifices of worship.
- That //Dúnedain// have only one priest, the Dúnadan monarch, and he could be only of the divine line of Elendil. Only a lawful heir of Elendil can supplicate Eru, carry out annual rituals, lead intercessory prayers and bind oaths in the hallowed name of Ilúvatar.
- That Númenor was destroyed not because men lost faith in God, nor because the annual rituals were discontinued, but because Ar-Pharazôn in his hubris bowed to Melkor and assailed the Undying Lands in vain attempt to obtain immortality.
Core values: Love, Pity, Humility, Courage and Fealty.
====//Ârûwânai// Asceticism====
//See also: [[PoliticalParties Political parties]]//
In keeping with the commandments of the **//Balâi//**, Númenórean monotheism had centered tightly on religious practices at the Hallow of Meneltarma. However, after the Downfall, Númenóreans were deprived of a central place of worship and religious activity, were unable to fulfill the practices mandated in the [[GondorPoliticalOrganization Law of the Seven Tablets]], and were scattered around the world. Those men of Westernesse, who did not belong to the Faithful, and repudiated the claims of Elendil, had to devise new ways of sacred observance.
Ârûwanâi asceticism (also called the legalist School of thought) was one answer to the problem. This new faith was based upon reverence and punctilious adherence to the Laws of Númenor. Line of Kings was considered broken after Tar-Palantir and Ar-Pharazôn, so there could be no mediator between Man and God, and all secondary claims to that priesthood (Faithful of Gondor and syncretistic //Kâthasaptha// of Bellakar) were deemed impious usurpations of that divine prerogative.
Asceticism was named for its negative theology and abstinence from all forms of worship. There were no temples, no priests and no religious ceremonies. During the Three Prayers (//Erukyermë, Erulaitalë// and //Eruhantalë//), Ârûwanâi observed complete silence from noon sunset. Judges (//asapthubêths//) and teachers of law became great spiritual leaders, and the law schools of Umbar grew in fame among all men of Westernesse. Much of the later Ârûwanâi literature concerns specifying what behavior is sanctioned by the law of Númenor; this body of interpretations is called //Batân// (the way). One of the pivotal questions which was never satisfactorily answered was the subject of free will in proportion to the divinely ordained fate. Many Umbarean //Adûnaim// converted to the fatalist school of thought, which stressed the importance of fate over choice: Everything that was and will be was already sung in the First Music of the Ainur.
During the last decades of [[Umbar Umbarean]] independence, a branch of speculative sacral jurisprudence developed from the //Bâtan. //It tried to console differences between Exiles, and offer alternative paths how the wayward children of Númenor could return to the grace of Êru. They soon digressed to mysticism and symbolic philosophy, while dreaming of //Númenor Reborn//. This erudite movement was closely connected with the political aims of the [[PoliticalParties Unionists]].
>>{{image url="images/Melkor.jpg" title="Melkor. Encaustic icon painting from Umbar"}}>>====Is Arda round? Folk religion in Umbar====
– ''//Drowning of Anadúnë, Umbarean edition of Akallabêth, annotated by Kheruzîr Azrubêl in III 992.//''
>>{{image url="images/MelkorLuthien.jpg" title="Melkor and Luthien. Painting from Anbalukkhôr."}}>>====Veneration of Kôlir: Folk religion in the Southlands====
====Kâthasaptha, the heresy of Bellakar====
>>{{image url="images/prophet.jpg" title="Izindubêth"}}>>====//Batan an-Izindi//====
"Because He is infinite and beyond comprehension it is not fitting for ordinary mortals to worship Eru with words and rituals, at times and places set by human wisdom, but only through silent contemplation of His greatness. Instead, Eru commands that Men honor Him through offering cult to the Kôlir; for being the children of Eru, the Kôlir reveal aspects of the One to His creation."
– ''// Conversation between Izindubêth and Artârik, from the Recitations//''
"At dawn on the 13th day of the month of //Najam// (february), in the third year of the reign of Artârik an-Aranî, it came to pass that Imrathôr, while pursuing his vocation in the bazaars of Hazaj Tollin, felt within his heart a mysterious summons to journey into the foothills of the Hulja Mountains, many leagues distant from the city. Searching for he knew not what, Imrathôr found that his feet were leading him to the tall summit of Urud an-Khibil. On that silent height, hidden from the eyes of Man, Imrathôr received a revelation from the One."
– ''//Chronicle of Bellakar, 842.//''
**//Batan an-Izindi//** (Ad. "Path of Righteousness") was founded in [[Bellakar]] by former bazaar merchant **Imrathôr** (812-884), who was animated by Adûnai fatalism and mysticial philosophy. In III 842 he retreated into a cave in Urud an-Khibil for forty days, after which he reported having witnessed visitation from the One. Imrathôr received further revelations, which were memorized and recorded by his companions. He changed his name to **Izindubêth**, the Prophet, and started preaching to his people. He wanted to purify the worship of Êru from haradan idolatry and implored his countrymen to abandon polytheism, while supporting the veneration of the Kôlir as a substitute. After three decades of vicious struggle, followers of the Batan an-Izindi conquered Hazaj Tollin. In 884 Izindubêth ruled over the whole Dune Sea. Even the death of the prophet in the hands of Tedjin invaders and the destruction of the monastery of Urud an-Khibil did nothing to counter the growth of this new movement. After the Adûnai realm of Bellakar collapsed along with its haphazard dualism, the Path of Righteousness started to spread via caravan routes to Raj and eastern Harad.
The Path of Righteousness is a curious blend of Númenorean monotheism and philosophically interpreted Bellakaze polytheism. Chief among its innovations is the principles of the spiritual equality of all peoples, //Adûnâ// and Southron alike, and an internalized ideal of spiritual peace. The first of these principles, while clearly influenced by early Númenórean theology, clashed with the racially-based moral hierarchies subscribed by the Elendili and Ârûwanâi.. The mystical concept of inner peace as a religious goal, on the other hand, resonated with the creed of Haradan goddess worship, though now "restored" to its proper referent: Êru.
Followers of the Path testify that //"there is no god except Êru and that Izindubêth is the Prophet of Êru"//, give prayer five times a day, fast in the month of Najam, give alms, and perform a pilgrimage to Urud an-Khibil. They give special offerings to the fourteen Kôlir, saints of the Bellakaze pantheon which are equated with the Balâi. Batan an-Izindi has been especially powerful movement among the camel-herding Urdwan nomads of the Dune Sea, which have almost completely abandoned their earlier shamanism. More than 4/5 of the urban poor in Bozisha-Dar are now adherents of the Batan an-Izindi.
>>{{image url="images/AlUzza.jpg" title="Haradan war goddess"}}>>>>{{image url="images/HaradanGoddesses.jpg" title="Triple Goddess of the Haruze"}}
Triple Goddess of Harad: Ishtra, Ladnoca and Menat>>====Folk religion in Near Harad====
While most of the coastal dwellers of Harad have converted into Númenórean monotheism, there are still fierce enclaves of Haruze polytheism. The most important these pagan beliefs is the bronze-age cult of the Three Sisters (or "Veiled Goddess"). They are triune of female deities once widely worshipped in all Harad: **Ishtra**, goddess of love and sea; **Ladnoca**, goddess of fertility, and **Manat**, goddess of memory and death.
Virginal Ishtra, also known as the "Lady of the Morning Star" and the "Daughter of the Western Sea", is the chief deity of Bûr Esmer (Zimra-Zadan). 5th century writer Zaimbar of Korlea tells us that woman of his time would invoke Ishrta from the rooftops, a form of worship quite appropriate to a star goddess. She has connections with the acacia tree, and her sanctuary at Ûrêzâyan has three acacias in which she was believed to descend. She has aspects of both love and war goddess; big cats were sacred to her cult. According to the //Chronicles of Gondor//, Baruthhîn of Zimrenzil (later Berúthiel, queen of Gondor) brought the cult of Ishtra to Pelargir and Osgiliath. There are still rumours of underground sects among men of Gondor where women revere Berúthiel and worship Ishtra in their nocturnal orgies (sic!).
Fertile Ladnoca, who is also called "the Mother of the Gods", is patroness of agriculture and goddess of moon and marriage. She has a sanctuary in the town of Nîlûlonde, which was sacred to her, and her symbol is the crescent moon. For several centuries, cult of Ladnoca has been the official protector of Bozisha-Dar and the kingdom of Raj. Third and eldest of the three sisters is Manat the Crone. Her cult is widespread, though she is particularly worshipped as a black stone at Jebra, near Bûr Esmer. Tombs are placed under her protection, asking her to curse violators. She is also goddess of memory, culture and chaos.
Beginning from the 15th century of the Third Age, all three cults have become monopolized by elite citizens, while urban poor has turned to Batan an-Izindi and its call to equality. As long as the rich and mighty pour gold to the cults of the goddesses, they remain important political and social actors in Harad, but they are losing their supporters to both Batan an-Izindi and the cult of Vatra, the sun god of Harad, who is equated with Melkor.
~& CategoryEncyclopaedia////
////
Deletions:
**Eru** (Q. "The One"), also called //Ilúvatar// (Q, "Allfather"), is the name of the supreme God in north-western Middle-earth. He is the single omnipotent creator, but, according to most beliefs, has delegated most direct action to the //Ainur// (angelic beings), including the shaping of the World itself. God created Elves and Men, without delegation to the Ainur. Therefore they are called "Children of Ilúvatar" (Ad. //Eruhini//). Common belief among men is that Eru would someday enter World to save his Children (reflected, for example, in //[[Literature Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth]]//). In [[Umbar]] and [[Bellakar]], God is called //Êru//. Among the puritan Faithful congregations even the use of Êru is considered impious in any other contexts than the thrice a year prayers.
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was **Eä**. The World (Q. //Arda//) is part of //Eä//, the universe of all which exists. It was first brought into existence with the //Music of the Ainur//, for the purpose of creating a home for the Children of God. Arda consists of the Earth, its atmosphere, and the celestial objects. The term for the Earth itself is Ambar. In [[Languages Adûnaic]] the world was called //Kamât, Daira// or //Aban//. The atmosphere is divided into //Vista//, the breathable of "lower" air and //Ilmen//, the "upper" air or space, where planets and stars exist.
===FLAME IMPERISHABLE===
In //[[Literature Quenta Silmarillion]]// and other mythological texts of the Faithful, **The Secret Fire** and **Flame Imperishable** are references to the life-giving power imparted to the world by Eru Ilúvatar, the divine "spark" of life. Melkor, desiring power equal to Ilúvatar, sought for it in vain. Melkor's desire for the Secret Fire led to his rebellion against Ilúvatar. It is part of the //Nimruzîrian Trinity// (The Word, The Father, The Secret Flame).
===FËA AND HRÖA===
===DEATH===
===THREE PHASES OF THE WORLD===
- According to [[Bellakar Bellakarian]] tradition //an-Adûna// is a person who speaks //adûnaic //as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the //[[PoliticalParties Ârûwanâi]]//, regardless of ethnic origin.
Although every //Dúnadan// is Faithful, not every Faithful is //Dúnadan//. The Faithful community in theory encompasses all the various subject peoples and commoners who subscribe to the Faithful ideology. However, in practice the Faithful are by its very nature exclusive group and reserved for men of Númenórean ancestry. Its main tenets are:
- That there is **One God**, //Eru Ilúvatar// (One All-father), who is the Creator of Eä, the World That Is, and everything in it.
- That Valar are the caretakers of the world, exalted messengers and stewards of Eru, and the Firstborn Elves are their children. They are patrons of the Númenórean race, forever deserving of homage. They are not to be worshipped //per se//, but they can act as an intermediary between Men and God.
- That men shall not build temples nor any other edifices of worship
- That //Dúnedain// have only one priest, the Dúnadan monarch, and he could be only of the divine line of Elendil and Elros Tar-Minyatur in which the bloodlines of //ainur//, //eldar// and men conjoin. Only the lawful heir of Elendil can supplicate Eru, carry out annual religious ceremonies, lead intercessory prayers and bind oaths in the hallowed name of Ilúvatar.
====//Ârûwânai// ascetic eruism====
====Is Arda round? Folk religion in Umbar====
''//- Drowning of Anadúnë, Umbarean edition of Akallabêth, annotated by Kheruzîr Azrubêl in III 992.//''
====Bellakarian heresy====
====Batan an-Izindi====
====Folk religion in Harad====
====Folk religion in Eriador====
~& CategoryEncyclopaedia


Revision [4214]

Edited on 2009-11-25 10:50:14 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
>>{{image url="images/StarmapSmall.jpg" title="Middle-earth star map" link="http://lindefirion.net/wiki/images/Starmap.png"}}>>==Númenórean astronomical calendar==
Deletions:
>>{{image url="images/StarmapSmall.jpg" title="Middle-earth star map" link="images/Starmap.png"}}>>==Númenórean astronomical calendar==


Revision [4211]

Edited on 2009-11-25 02:35:38 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
– ''//The Book of Lost Tales//''
– ''//The Music of the Ainur//''
Deletions:
– ''//[[Literature The Book of Lost Tales]]//''
– ''//[[Literature The Music of the Ainur]]//''


Revision [4210]

Edited on 2009-11-25 02:34:56 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
||//Telumendil//||Friend of the Firmament||[[Wikipedia:Gemini_(constellation) Gemini]]||
Deletions:
||//Telumendil//||Friend of the Firmament||[[Wikipedia:Hercules_(constellation) Hercules]]||


Revision [4209]

Edited on 2009-11-25 02:33:52 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
======Religion, folklore and cosmology in [[Gondor]] and [[Umbar]]======
>>{{image url="images/Eru.jpg" title="Eru Ilúvatar and the Creation of the Sun and Moon. Fresco in the Halls of the Faithful in Pelargir."}}>>====Common beliefs====
===GOD, ERU ILÚVATAR===
"But Rúmil said: 'Ilúvatar was the first beginning, and beyond that no wisdom of the Valar or of Eldar or of Men can go.' 'Who was Ilúvatar?' asked Eriol. 'Was he of the Gods?' 'Nay,' said Rúmil, 'that he was not, for he made them. Ilúvatar is the Lord for Always who dwells beyond the world; who made it and is not of it nor in it, but loves it.' "
– ''//[[Literature The Book of Lost Tales]]//''
**Eru** (Q. "The One"), also called //Ilúvatar// (Q, "Allfather"), is the name of the supreme God in north-western Middle-earth. He is the single omnipotent creator, but, according to most beliefs, has delegated most direct action to the //Ainur// (angelic beings), including the shaping of the World itself. God created Elves and Men, without delegation to the Ainur. Therefore they are called "Children of Ilúvatar" (Ad. //Eruhini//). Common belief among men is that Eru would someday enter World to save his Children (reflected, for example, in //[[Literature Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth]]//). In [[Umbar]] and [[Bellakar]], God is called //Êru//. Among the puritan Faithful congregations even the use of Êru is considered impious in any other contexts than the thrice a year prayers.
>>{{image url="images/Ambar.jpg" title="Ambar"}}>>===CREATION===
"Therefore Ilúvatar gave to their vision Being, and set it amid the Void, and the Secret Fire was sent to burn at the heart of the World; and it was called Eä."
– ''//Valaquenta//''
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was **Eä**. The World (Q. //Arda//) is part of //Eä//, the universe of all which exists. It was first brought into existence with the //Music of the Ainur//, for the purpose of creating a home for the Children of God. Arda consists of the Earth, its atmosphere, and the celestial objects. The term for the Earth itself is Ambar. In [[Languages Adûnaic]] the world was called //Kamât, Daira// or //Aban//. The atmosphere is divided into //Vista//, the breathable of "lower" air and //Ilmen//, the "upper" air or space, where planets and stars exist.
Ancient Númenóreans were first to formulate a theory of //wandering stars//. The oldest surviving astronomical text is the Númenórean tablet of //Gimlu-Oresetel// (c. II 1600), copy of a list of observations of the motions of the [[Wikipedia:Venus Eärendil's Star]]. The Númenóreans also laid the foundations of Western astrology. The //Batan an-Gimilêphel//, written during the Ârûwânai period in the 27th century Second Age, comprises a list of omens and their relationships with various celestial phenomena including the motions of the planets. Númenóreans grouped the fixed and wandering stars in companies of seven.
>>{{image url="images/StarmapSmall.jpg" title="Middle-earth star map" link="images/Starmap.png"}}>>==Númenórean astronomical calendar==
|=|Adûnaic|=|Elvish|=|Planet|=|Weekday|=|
||//Ûrî//||//Anor//||Sun||Sunday||
||//Nîlû//||//Isil//||Moon||Monday||
||//Azgarâ//||//Carnil//||Mars||Tuesday||
||//Gimluzimri//||//Elemmírë//||Mercury||Wednesday||
||//Alkar//||//Alcarinquë//||Jupiter||Thursday||
||//Azrubêl//||//Eärendil//||Venus||Friday||
||//Nâlobar//||//Lumbar//||Saturn||Saturday||
==Liturgical calendar of the Faithful==
|=|Sindarin|=|Common|=|Weekday|=|
||//Orgilion//||Sterday||Saturday||
||//Oranor//||Sunday||Sunday||
||//Orithil//||Monday||Monday||
||//Argalad//||Trewsday||Tuesday||
||//Ormenel//||Hevensday||Wednesday||
||//Aroeren//||Mersday||Thursday||
||//Orbelain//||**Highday**||**Friday** (holy day)||
==Constellations==
|=|Quenya name|=|Common names|=|Constellation|=|
||//Wilwarin//||Butterfly||[[Wikipedia:Cassiopeia_(constellation) Cassiopeia]]||
||//Telumendil//||Friend of the Firmament||[[Wikipedia:Hercules_(constellation) Hercules]]||
||//Soronúmë//||Eagle of the West||[[Wikipedia:Aquila_(constellation) Aquila]]||
||//Remmirath//||Netted Stars, Sieve, Seven Sisters||[[Wikipedia:Pleiades_(star_cluster) Pleiades]]||
||//Anarríma//||Suncrown||[[Wikipedia:Pegasus_(constellation) Pegasus]]||
||//Menelmacar//||Swordsman of the Sky, //Menelvagor, Telimektar, Daimord, Taimavar//||[[Wikipedia:Orion Orion]]||
||//Valacirca//||Sickle of the Valar, Burning Briar, Plough, //Otselen//, Durin's Crown ||[[Wikipedia:Big_Dipper Ursa Major]]||
===FLAME IMPERISHABLE===
"...Only one thing I [Ilúvatar] have added, the fire that giveth Life and Reality, and behold, the Secret Fire burnt at the heart of the world."
– ''//[[Literature The Music of the Ainur]]//''
In //[[Literature Quenta Silmarillion]]// and other mythological texts of the Faithful, **The Secret Fire** and **Flame Imperishable** are references to the life-giving power imparted to the world by Eru Ilúvatar, the divine "spark" of life. Melkor, desiring power equal to Ilúvatar, sought for it in vain. Melkor's desire for the Secret Fire led to his rebellion against Ilúvatar. It is part of the //Nimruzîrian Trinity// (The Word, The Father, The Secret Flame).
===FËA AND HRÖA===
===DEATH===
===THREE PHASES OF THE WORLD===
===SECOND PROPHECY===
=====Pilgrimage=====
Deletions:
======Religion, folklore and religious thought in Realms in Exile======


Revision [4158]

Edited on 2009-11-17 01:47:42 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
//See also: [[Literature Literature in the Realms of Exile]]//


Revision [4122]

Edited on 2009-11-10 21:42:54 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
----
~& CategoryEncyclopaedia


Revision [4120]

Edited on 2009-11-10 21:31:16 by SampsaRydman
Deletions:
----
~& CategoryEncyclopaedia


Revision [4119]

Edited on 2009-11-10 21:30:52 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
{{include WesternesseShrines}}


Revision [3892]

Edited on 2009-10-30 21:49:16 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
- That //Dúnedain// have only one priest, the Dúnadan monarch, and he could be only of the divine line of Elendil and Elros Tar-Minyatur in which the bloodlines of //ainur//, //eldar// and men conjoin. Only the lawful heir of Elendil can supplicate Eru, carry out annual religious ceremonies, lead intercessory prayers and bind oaths in the hallowed name of Ilúvatar.
Deletions:
- That //Dúnedain// have only one priest, the king, and he could be only of the divine line of Elendil and Elros Tar-Minyatur in which the bloodlines of //ainur//, //eldar// and men conjoin.


Revision [3851]

Edited on 2009-10-29 17:57:03 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
- That there is **One God**, //Eru Ilúvatar// (One All-father), who is the Creator of Eä, the World That Is, and everything in it.
- That the Quenya form of the divine name (//Eru//) possesses great power in and of itself, and should not be uttered aloud or in vain.
- That Valar are the caretakers of the world, exalted messengers and stewards of Eru, and the Firstborn Elves are their children. They are patrons of the Númenórean race, forever deserving of homage. They are not to be worshipped //per se//, but they can act as an intermediary between Men and God.
- That God has given the people of Númenor thrice great power and longevity than common men, and this gift is linked to the continuing observation of the religious rites of the Faithful and survival of the the divine bloodline line of Elros, and that gift could be taken away because of the sins of the Men.
- That men shall not build temples nor any other edifices of worship
- That //Dúnedain// have only one priest, the king, and he could be only of the divine line of Elendil and Elros Tar-Minyatur in which the bloodlines of //ainur//, //eldar// and men conjoin.
Deletions:
- That there is **One God**, //Eru Ilúvatar// (One All-father), who is the Creator of Eä, the World That Is, and everything in it.
- That the Quenya form of the divine name (//Eru//) possesses great power in and of itself, and should not be uttered aloud or in vain.
- That Valar are the caretakers of the world, exalted messengers and stewards of Eru, and the Firstborn Elves are their children. They are patrons of the Númenórean race, forever deserving of homage. They are not to be worshipped //per se//, but they can act as an intermediary between Men and God.
- That God has given the people of Númenor thrice great power and longevity than common men, and this gift is linked to the continuing observation of the religious rites of the Faithful and survival of the the divine bloodline line of Elros, and that gift could be taken away because of the sins of the Men.
- That men shall not build temples nor any other edifices of worship
- That //Dúnedain// have only one priest, the king, and he could be only of the divine line of Elendil and Elros Tar-Minyatur in which the bloodlines of //ainur//, //eldar// and men conjoin.


Revision [3850]

Edited on 2009-10-29 17:56:49 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
====//Elendili// (the Faithful)====
Although every //Dúnadan// is Faithful, not every Faithful is //Dúnadan//. The Faithful community in theory encompasses all the various subject peoples and commoners who subscribe to the Faithful ideology. However, in practice the Faithful are by its very nature exclusive group and reserved for men of Númenórean ancestry. Its main tenets are:
- That there is **One God**, //Eru Ilúvatar// (One All-father), who is the Creator of Eä, the World That Is, and everything in it.
- That the Quenya form of the divine name (//Eru//) possesses great power in and of itself, and should not be uttered aloud or in vain.
- That Valar are the caretakers of the world, exalted messengers and stewards of Eru, and the Firstborn Elves are their children. They are patrons of the Númenórean race, forever deserving of homage. They are not to be worshipped //per se//, but they can act as an intermediary between Men and God.
- That God has given the people of Númenor thrice great power and longevity than common men, and this gift is linked to the continuing observation of the religious rites of the Faithful and survival of the the divine bloodline line of Elros, and that gift could be taken away because of the sins of the Men.
- That men shall not build temples nor any other edifices of worship
- That //Dúnedain// have only one priest, the king, and he could be only of the divine line of Elendil and Elros Tar-Minyatur in which the bloodlines of //ainur//, //eldar// and men conjoin.
====//Ârûwânai// ascetic eruism====
Deletions:
====The official cult of //Elendili// (the Faithful)====
====Ârûwânai ascetic eruism====


Revision [3839]

Edited on 2009-10-29 02:25:49 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
**"Who is a Númenórean?"** (//an-Adûna//) is a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification. The question has gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall. The definition of who is of Númenórean ancestry varies according to whether it is being considered by the [[PoliticalParties Elendili]] or [[PoliticalParties Ârûwanâi]] based on normative religious statutes, self-identification or by non-Númenóreans for their own particular purposes. Because Númenórean identity can include characteristics of an ethnicity, a religion, and citizenship, the definition has varied, particularly since the early 6th century schism.
- According to [[Bellakar Bellakarian]] tradition //an-Adûna// is a person who speaks //adûnaic //as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the //[[PoliticalParties Ârûwanâi]]//, regardless of ethnic origin.
Deletions:
**"Who is a Númenórean?"** (//an-Adûna//) is a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification. The question has gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall. The definition of who is of Númenórean ancestry varies according to whether it is being considered by the [[PoliticalParties Elendili]] or [[PoliticalParties Ârûwânai]] based on normative religious statutes, self-identification or by non-Númenóreans for their own particular purposes. Because Númenórean identity can include characteristics of an ethnicity, a religion, and citizenship, the definition has varied, particularly since the early 6th century schism.
- According to [[Bellakar Bellakarian]] tradition //an-Adûna// is a person who speaks //adûnaic //as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the //[[PoliticalParties Ârûwânai]]//, regardless of ethnic origin.


Revision [3829]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:51:48 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
====The official cult of //Elendili// (the Faithful)====
Deletions:
====The Official Cult of Elendili (the Faithful)====


Revision [3828]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:51:32 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
====Cult of identity====
Deletions:
====Cult of Identity====


Revision [3827]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:51:16 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
====Cult of Identity====
Deletions:
====History====


Revision [3826]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:49:58 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
**"Who is a Númenórean?"** (//an-Adûna//) is a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification. The question has gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall. The definition of who is of Númenórean ancestry varies according to whether it is being considered by the [[PoliticalParties Elendili]] or [[PoliticalParties Ârûwânai]] based on normative religious statutes, self-identification or by non-Númenóreans for their own particular purposes. Because Númenórean identity can include characteristics of an ethnicity, a religion, and citizenship, the definition has varied, particularly since the early 6th century schism.
- In ancient [[Umbar Umbarean]] civil law, a person is Númenórean by birth if born from Númenórean mother.
- [[Gondor Gondorian]] civil law of 840 extend Númenorean citizenship to anyone possessing more than an eight part Númenórean blood.
- According to [[Bellakar Bellakarian]] tradition //an-Adûna// is a person who speaks //adûnaic //as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the //[[PoliticalParties Ârûwânai]]//, regardless of ethnic origin.
Deletions:
**"Who is a Númenórean?"** (//an-Adûna//) is a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification. The question has gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall. The definition of who is of Númenórean ancestry varies according to whether it is being considered by the Elendili or Ârûwânai based on normative religious statutes, self-identification or by non-Númenóreans for their own particular purposes. Because Númenórean identity can include characteristics of an ethnicity, a religion, and citizenship, the definition has varied, particularly since the early 6th century schism.
- In ancient Umbarean civil law, a person is Númenórean by birth if born from Númenórean mother.
- Gondorian civil law of 840 extend Númenorean citizenship to anyone possessing more than an eight part Númenórean blood.
- According to Bellakarian tradition //an-Adûna// is a person who speaks //adûnaic //as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the Ârûwânai, regardless of ethnic origin.


Revision [3825]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:48:35 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
- According to Bellakarian tradition //an-Adûna// is a person who speaks //adûnaic //as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the Ârûwânai, regardless of ethnic origin.
Deletions:
- According to Bellakarian tradition //an-Adûna// is a person who speaks adûnaic as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the Ârûwânai, regardless of ethnic origin.


Revision [3824]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:48:22 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
- According to Bellakarian tradition //an-Adûna// is a person who speaks adûnaic as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the Ârûwânai, regardless of ethnic origin.
Deletions:
- According to Bellakarian tradition an-Adûna is a person who speaks adûnaic as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the Ârûwânai, regardless of ethnic origin.


Revision [3823]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:48:09 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
**"Who is a Númenórean?"** (//an-Adûna//) is a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification. The question has gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall. The definition of who is of Númenórean ancestry varies according to whether it is being considered by the Elendili or Ârûwânai based on normative religious statutes, self-identification or by non-Númenóreans for their own particular purposes. Because Númenórean identity can include characteristics of an ethnicity, a religion, and citizenship, the definition has varied, particularly since the early 6th century schism.
Deletions:
**"Who is a Númenórean?"** (//an-Adûna//) is a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification. The question has gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall.
The definition of who is of Númenórean ancestry varies according to whether it is being considered by the Elendili or Ârûwânai based on normative religious statutes, self-identification or by non-Númenóreans for their own particular purposes. Because Númenórean identity can include characteristics of an ethnicity, a religion, and citizenship, the definition has varied, particularly since the early 6th century schism.


Revision [3822]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:48:01 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
**"Who is a Númenórean?"** (//an-Adûna//) is a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification. The question has gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall.
Deletions:
"Who is a Númenórean?" (//an-Adûna//) is a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification. The question has gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall.


Revision [3821]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:47:22 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
====Is Arda round? Folk religion in Umbar====
''//- Drowning of Anadúnë, Umbarean edition of Akallabêth, annotated by Kheruzîr Azrubêl in III 992.//''
In the "Drowning of Anadúnë", an ancient apographa, the //nimir// (eldar) had come to the Adûnaim and expressly taught that the world was of its nature round (//'as an apple it hangeth on theb ranches of heaven'//), but Zigur (Sauron) coming had gainsaid it ('//the world was not a circle closed//'). It can be deduced that the author knows that the world is of its nature a globe; but very few of the Adûnaim had believed this teaching until the voyages of the survivors of the Downfall taught them that it was true. Umbrean mariners were the first ones to perceive the spherical shape of the earth, although first circumnavigation is usually attributed to Atandil (Anîzîr) of Anadúnë. According to //"Parma gaudion"// (S. Book of machines), another Umbarean apographa, Umbarean //Adûnaim// also built ships that could sail in the "heavy air" and landed in the newly-found western continent or "dark lands", inhabited by savages, and were revered as gods and kings.
According to Umbarean beliefs, world has always been a globe, but Sauron **tricked** men of Westernesse to believe it was plain. In contrast, most Gondorians subscribe to the official theology offered in //Akallabêth// that world was **made** round in the Downfall.
Deletions:
====Is Arda round?====
''//- Drowning of Anadúnë, Umbarean edition of Akallabêth, annotated by Kheruzîr Azrubêl in III 992.//''


Revision [3820]

Edited on 2009-10-29 01:31:59 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
====Is Arda round?====

"Now the summit of mount //Minul-Tarik// (Meneltarma), the pillar of heaven, in the midst of the land was a hallowed place, for there the //adûnaim// had been wont to give thanks to //Êru//, and to adore him; and even in the days of //Zigur// (Sauron) it had not been defiled. Therefore many men believed that it was not drowned for ever, but rose again above the waves, a [[SolitudeIslands lonely island]] lost in the great waters, if haply a mariner should come upon it. And many there were that after sought for it, because it was said among the remnant of the //Adûnaim// that the far-sighted men of old could see from the Minul-Tarik the glimmer of the deathless land. For even after their ruin the hearts of the Adûnaim were still set westward; and though they knew that the world was changed, they said: //'Avallone is vanished from the earth, and the [[Yozayan land of gift]] is taken away, and in the world of this present darkness they cannot be found; yet once they were, and therefore they still are in true being and in the whole shape of the world.' // And the //Adûnaim// held that men so blessed might look upon other times than those of the body's life; and they longed ever to escape from the shadows of their exile and to see in some fashion the light that was of old. Therefore some among them would still search the empty seas, hoping to come upon the Lonely Isle, and there to see a vision of things that were.

But they found it not, and they said: //'all the ways are bent that once were straight.' // For in the youth of the world it was a hard saying to men that the earth was not plain as it seemed to be, and few even of the Faithful of Anadúnë had believed in their hearts this teaching; and when in after days, what by star-craft, what by the voyages of ships that sought out all the ways and waters of the earth, the Kings of Men knew that the world was indeed round, then the belief arose among them that it had so been made only in the time of the great downfall, and was not thus before. Therefore they thought that, while the new world fell away, the old road and the path of the memory of the earth went on towards heaven, as it were a mighty bridge invisible. And many were the rumours and tales among them concerning mariners and men forlorn upon the sea, who by some grace or fate had entered in upon."

''//- Drowning of Anadúnë, Umbarean edition of Akallabêth, annotated by Kheruzîr Azrubêl in III 992.//''


Revision [3819]

Edited on 2009-10-29 00:50:39 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
======Religion, folklore and religious thought in Realms in Exile======
"Who is a Númenórean?" (//an-Adûna//) is a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification. The question has gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall.
The definition of who is of Númenórean ancestry varies according to whether it is being considered by the Elendili or Ârûwânai based on normative religious statutes, self-identification or by non-Númenóreans for their own particular purposes. Because Númenórean identity can include characteristics of an ethnicity, a religion, and citizenship, the definition has varied, particularly since the early 6th century schism.
- According to //Namnar Númenórëo//, the oldest normative definition, a child born from Númenórean parents is always Númenórean, whatever his actions and beliefs are.
- In ancient Umbarean civil law, a person is Númenórean by birth if born from Númenórean mother.
- Gondorian civil law of 840 extend Númenorean citizenship to anyone possessing more than an eight part Númenórean blood.
- According to Bellakarian tradition an-Adûna is a person who speaks adûnaic as his native tongue and participates in religious observations of the Ârûwânai, regardless of ethnic origin.
Deletions:
======Religion, folklore and religious thought in Westernesse======


Revision [3818]

Edited on 2009-10-29 00:00:48 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
======Religion, folklore and religious thought in Westernesse======
====History====
====The Official Cult of Elendili (the Faithful)====
====Ârûwânai ascetic eruism====
====Folk religion in Gondor====
====Bellakarian heresy====
====Batan an-Izindi====
====Folk religion in Harad====
====Folk religion in Eriador====
Deletions:
======Religion, folklore and religious thought======
===The Official Cult of Elendili (the Faithful)===
===Ârûwânai ascetic eruism===
===Folk religion in Gondor===
===Bellakarian heresy===
===Batan an-Izindi===
===Folk religion in Harad===
===Folk religion in Eriador===


Revision [3817]

Edited on 2009-10-28 23:38:01 by SampsaRydman
Additions:
===The Official Cult of Elendili (the Faithful)===
===Ârûwânai ascetic eruism===
===Folk religion in Gondor===
===Bellakarian heresy===
===Batan an-Izindi===
===Folk religion in Harad===
===Folk religion in Eriador===


Revision [3816]

The oldest known version of this page was created on 2009-10-28 23:33:26 by SampsaRydman
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