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======Economy of the South-Kingdom======

===ESTIMATED POPULATION FIGURES===
""<table width=80% border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1">
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td> </td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">1400 TA</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">1600 TA</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">1650 TA</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">1850 TA</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Anórien</td>
<td>900 000</td>
<td>900 000</td>
<td>600 000</td>
<td>800 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Ithilien</td>
<td>700 000</td>
<td>700 000</td>
<td>450 000</td>
<td>400 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Lebennin</td>
<td>1 500 000</td>
<td>1 250 000</td>
<td>900 000</td>
<td>1 000 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Belfalas</td>
<td>1 000 000</td>
<td>1 000 000</td>
<td>500 000</td>
<td>600 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Lamedon</td>
<td>200 000</td>
<td>200 000</td>
<td>120 000</td>
<td>140 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Anfalas</td>
<td>400 000</td>
<td>500 000</td>
<td>350 000</td>
<td>500 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Calenardhon</td>
<td>250 000</td>
<td>250 000</td>
<td>100 000</td>
<td>150 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Wold</td>
<td>50 000</td>
<td>50 000</td>
<td>30 000</td>
<td>20 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Dor Rhûnen</td>
<td>200 000</td>
<td>200 000</td>
<td>100 000</td>
<td>50 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td>Harondor</td>
<td>1 000 000</td>
<td>900 000</td>
<td>500 000</td>
<td>300 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#D7E1D7">
<td><b>Total:</b></td>
<td><b>6 200 000</b></td>
<td><b>5 950 000</b></td>
<td><b>3 650 000</b></td>
<td><b>3 960 000</b></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="5"> </td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Nen Umbar</td>
<td>350 000</td>
<td>450 000</td>
<td>360 000</td>
<td>350 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Annabrith</td>
<td>30 000</td>
<td> 90 000</td>
<td>30 000</td>
<td>30 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Glinfalas</td>
<td>80 000</td>
<td>200 000</td>
<td>100 000</td>
<td>100 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Cuivierant</td>
<td>50 000</td>
<td>60 000</td>
<td>70 000</td>
<td>90 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Harnen</td>
<td>300 000</td>
<td>400 000</td>
<td>200 000</td>
<td>400 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#D5BDC6">
<td><b>Total:</b></td>
<td><b>810 000</b></td>
<td><b>1 100 000</b></td>
<td><b>760 000</b></td>
<td><b>970 000</b></td>
</tr>
</table>""**Note:** Demographic figures are based on calculations and thoughts by Jason Beresford and Gunnar Brolin, published in //Other Hands 3 & 4.//

===GONDORIAN REVENUES AND BUDGET===
Numbers in Gold Crowns (//Erin//).

""<table WIDTH=50% border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1">
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF"></font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">1400 TA</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">1550 TA</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">1650 TA</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">1750 TA</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td><font color="#000000">Land & Head Taxes</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">2 500 000 </font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">1 500 000</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">800 000</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">1 450 000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td><font color="#000000">Commerce & Other</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">500 000</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">200 000</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">100 000</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">200 000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#EDF5EB">
<td><font color="#000000">Total Revenues</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">3 000 000</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">1 700 000</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">900 000</font></td>
<td><font color="#000000">1 650 000</font></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="5"> </td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Payroll of Army</td>
<td>1 400 000</td>
<td>1 100 000</td>
<td>453 000</td>
<td>548 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Other military costs</td>
<td>800 000</td>
<td>400 000</td>
<td>209 000</td>
<td>331 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Bureaucracy</td>
<td>250 000</td>
<td>200 000</td>
<td>200 000</td>
<td>250 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Largesse*</td>
<td>150 000</td>
<td>50 000</td>
<td>50 000</td>
<td>100 000</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F0E3E9">
<td>Total Expenditures</td>
<td>2 600 000</td>
<td>1 750 000</td>
<td>937 000</td>
<td>1 229 000</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="5"> </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td bgcolor="#D7E1D7"><b>Surplus:</b></td>
<td bgcolor="#D7E1D7"><b>+400 000</b></td>
<td bgcolor="#D5BDC6"><b>-50 000</b></td>
<td bgcolor="#D5BDC6"><b>-37 000</b></td>
<td bgcolor="#D7E1D7"><b>+421 999</b></td>
</tr>
</table>""**Note:** Largesse includes corn doles of Pelargir and Osgiliath, food subsidies and many public works. Fiscal deficit of 1550 was countered by large tribute extracted from Umbar and Harad. Post-plague Gondor quickly exhausted its silver reserves; any deficit was covered by monetary debasement, selling of goverment property and future revenues for cash. Surplus revenues in the late 18th century were mostly used for shipbuilding and strengthening of the gondorian war machine.

===CURRENCY IN GONDOR===

Royal currency was based on a gold //Erin// ("Crown"), struck at 36 to the pound (4.48 grs.) and 99.5% fine. Erin had developed into a very stable currency during the age of ship-kings, and it managed to retain its value in spite of several monetary crises during 15th-18th centuries. As military and diplomatic costs mushroomed, **Dior Arandur Húrinion** of Emyn Arnen, chosen as the King's Steward during Tarondor's era, devised ingenious means to stretch the supply of currency. Tarondor minted "light-weight" Gold Crowns at 98.5% fine, saving substantial sums of gold in the process. This minor debasement of 1% from the ideal standard did not weaken the valuation of //Erin//.

Silver prices, however, fluctuated wildly. Erin was originally divided into five //Lothi// and twenty ¼-ounce //Celebarni// ("Silver Royals"). Minting of //Lothi// was discontinued in 1450 to save silver, which was more commonly used in commerce than gold. Silver Royals fared better, but to keep sufficient number of precious metal in circulation after 1450, it was necessary to worsen the quality of //Celebarn//. Vinyarion issued 5% debased silver royals to pay his armies during Gondor-Harad War (1540-1551). King Tarondor, counceled by steward Dior Arandur, went farther. As the prices ballooned and the value of money deteriorated, more pure silver was hoarded to private caches. Hard and indecisive [[ThirdCorsairWar Third Umbarean War (1653-1666)]] hastened the pace, until Royals were only ½ silver and ½ copper. Older, pure silver //Celebarni// were redesignated as //Miriani// and rated sometimes as much as four new Royals.

Fractional currency consisted a single, tiny denomination called an //Ela// or farthing (a "mug" in Pelargirean slang, as it was the smallest piece of money needed to buy a drink). This coin, a wretched survivor of the numerous abortive currency reforms attempted during and after the Kin-Strife, was reckoned by a thousand to the //Erin//. In 1445 Castamir had quartered the weight of the //Ela//, but due to rampant inflation, its buying power soon reduced to nothing and quarter-elas were quickly forgotten.

In 1298 Minalcar recoined preceding bronze //Tambs// into single bronze pieces called //Mina//, struck at 36 to the pound and tariffed at 5 copper farthings so that the exchange was 1 ERIN = 210 MINA = 1050 copper farthings. The fractions of Half-//Mina// (2½ farthings) and //Attaëla// (2 farthings) were also minted. In 1412, Valacar doubled the weights of the //Mina// and its fractions; the new exchange was 1 ERIN = 105 MINA = 1050 copper farthings (½-//Mina// was now 5 farthings and //Attaëla// became //Cantaëla//). War and inflation in 1540-1551 compelled kings to lower the weight of the //Mina// and the exchange rate of 1 ERIN = 200 MINA = 1000 copper farthings was imposed in the Law.

King Telumehtar and his steward Malandil Maratarion of Emyn Arnen initiated a complete reform of the monetary system in 1830. Most of the golden //Erin// had by then disappeared into hoards, so a new silver standard was formed to handle Gondor's dwindling internal and external trade. //Castar// was new one ounce silver piece, quartered to four //Tharni//. They were all struck from pure silver and retained their value far to the third millennium.

**Note on Umbar:** Númenorean coins were minted during the Ancient Realm. In 1050-1448 standard Gondorean currency was used. After 1450, rebel lords minted coins with old gondorian casts bearing the head of Castamir, last king of Gondor they acknowledged. This tradition was however discontinued in 1470 by the Oligarchs in the Regency Council. In 1470-1810 umbarean standard currency was ½-ounce //besant// (from sindarin word //besain//, "bread-giver"), which was minted from gold-silver alloy.

""<h4>EXCHANGE RATES (Numbers show relative values)</h4>

<table width="600" border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1">
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td colspan="2"><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Ship-Kings</font></b></td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F0F2F4">
<td><i>Malanor</i></td>

<td>20 000</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F0F2F4">
<td><i>Erin</i></td>

<td>4 000</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F0F2F4">
<td><i>Loth</i></td>

<td>800</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F0F2F4">
<td><i>Celebarn</i></td>

<td>200</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F0F2F4">
<td><i>Tamb</i></td>

<td>20</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F0F2F4">
<td><i>Bernhar</i></td>

<td>8</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F0F2F4">
<td><i>Ela</i></td>

<td>2</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td colspan="2"><b><font color="#FFFFFF">During Kin-Strife</font></b></td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#EDEEE8">
<td><i>Malanor</i></td>

<td>42 000</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#EDEEE8">
<td>Gold Crown<i> (Erin)</i></td>

<td>4 200</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#EDEEE8">
<td><i>Loth</i></td>

<td>840</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#EDEEE8">
<td>Silver Royal <i>(Celebarn)</i></td>

<td>210</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#EDEEE8">
<td><i>Mina</i></td>

<td>40</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#EDEEE8">
<td>Half-<i>Mina</i></td>

<td>20</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#EDEEE8">
<td><i>Cantaëla</i></td>

<td>4</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#EDEEE8">
<td>Farthing <i>(Ela)</i></td>

<td>1</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td colspan="2"><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Post-Plague</font></b></td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#E7DCE4">
<td><i>Malanor</i></td>

<td>40 000</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#E7DCE4">
<td>Gold Crown<i> (Erin)</i></td>

<td>3 960</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#E7DCE4">
<td><i>Mirian</i></td>

<td>200 +</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#E7DCE4">
<td>Silver Royal <i>(Celebarn)</i></td>

<td>100</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#E7DCE4">
<td><i>Mina</i></td>

<td>20</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#E7DCE4">
<td><i>Attaëla</i></td>

<td>8</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#E7DCE4">
<td>Farthing<i> <i>(Ela)</i></i></td>

<td>4</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td colspan="2"><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Foreign Currencies</font></b></td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Arnorian Crown (gold)</td>

<td>2 000</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Arnorian Half-Crown (silver)<i></i></td>

<td>1 000</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Arnorian Shilling (silver)</td>

<td>200</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Arnorian Half-Shilling (silver)<i></i></td>

<td>100</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Arnorian Fourpence (copper)</td>

<td>16</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Arnorian Pence (copper)</td>

<td>4</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Arnorian Halfpenny (copper)</td>

<td>2</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Umbarean Besant (alloy)</td>

<td>2 000</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Bozisha-Dar Crescent (silver)</td>

<td>150</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Bozisha-Dar Dinar (copper)</td>

<td>1</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Tûl Isra <i>Tal </i>(gold)</td>

<td>64 000</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Tûl Harar <i>Kesh</i> (gold)</td>

<td>8 000</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Sîrayn <i>Saris</i> (silver)</td>

<td>100</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Sîrayn <i>Sort </i>(bronze)</td>

<td>10</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Sîrayn <i>Garn </i>(copper)</td>

<td>1</td>
</tr>

<tr bgcolor="#F2EAEA">
<td>Khazad-Dûm Kibil (silver)</td>

<td>1 600</td>
</tr>
</table>
<BR>

<h4>AVERAGE WAGES IN GONDOR (1650 TA)</h4>

<table width="600" border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="2">
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">General labour</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Wage / time</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F7FBF7">
<td>Unskilled worker</td>
<td>4 bp / day</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F7FBF7">
<td>Farm labourer</td>
<td>4 bp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F7FBF7">
<td>Lime burner</td>
<td>5 bp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F7FBF7">
<td>Mule driver</td>
<td>3 bp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F7FBF7">
<td>Common whore</td>
<td>~20 cp / customer, 4-6 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F7FBF7">
<td>Indentured servant</td>
<td>6 bp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Skilled labour</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Wage / time</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Barber</td>
<td>10 cp / customer</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Furniture maker</td>
<td>18 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Skiller carpenter</td>
<td>16 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Artisan, novice</td>
<td>11 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Artisan, apprentice</td>
<td>
<p>18 gp annual</p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Artisan, master</td>
<td>50 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Courier</td>
<td>4 cp / mile</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Stone mason</td>
<td>&frac12; sp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Figure painter</td>
<td>1&frac12; sp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Wool weaver</td>
<td>1 &frac34; sp / cloak</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Paver or mosaics worker</td>
<td>6 bp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Shipwright</td>
<td>6 bp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Wagonsmith</td>
<td>5 bp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F2F5F7">
<td>Wall painter</td>
<td>7 bp / day + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Professionals</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Wage / time</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9ECF7">
<td>Physician</td>
<td>100 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9ECF7">
<td>Advocate</td>
<td>~300 gp worth of bribes annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9ECF7">
<td>Courtisan</td>
<td>~80 gp worth of gifts annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9ECF7">
<td>Goverment official</td>
<td>73 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9ECF7">
<td>Teacher</td>
<td>28 sp / pupil + maintenance</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#000000">
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Military professions</font></b></td>
<td><b><font color="#FFFFFF">Wage / time</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td>Footsoldier, territorial</td>
<td>6-9 gp annual, rations + land grant</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td>Footsoldier, Dagarim Aran</td>
<td>10 gp annual, rations + land grant</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td>Sailor</td>
<td>10 gp annual + provisions</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td>City guard</td>
<td>7 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td>Horseman, territorial</td>
<td>29 gp annual, inc. horse</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td>Roechbin (heavy cavalry)</td>
<td>36 gp annual, inc. horse</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td>Royal guard</td>
<td>20 gp annual, rations</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F1DAD3">
<td colspan="2">- Quinquennial donatives: 72 sp every five years</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td colspan="2">Land grants upon honourable discharge:</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F1DAD3">
<td>- Footsoldier</td>
<td>plot worth of 64 gp</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F1DAD3">
<td>- Cavalry</td>
<td>plot worth of 128 gp</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td><i>Turmahîr </i>(Lieutenant)</td>
<td>54 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td><i>Autherdir </i>(Captain)</td>
<td>250 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td><i>Herdir </i>(Tribune)</td>
<td>300 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td><i>Condir</i> (Banneret)</td>
<td>108 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td><i>Berthir </i>(Prefect)</td>
<td>3 200 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td>Skipper</td>
<td>~73 gp annual</td>
</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#F9EFEC">
<td>Marine Captain</td>
<td>200 gp annual</td>
</tr>
</table>""
**Note:** Military salaries were paid as fixed prices in Silver Royals and thus started to deteriorate during the 16th and 17th centuries. By 1660s, footsoldier's salary of 200 royals had less than half the buying power it had in the 1450s. This problem was dealth with by providing food, uniforms and weapons as payments in kind (earlier, soldiers were responsible for paying their supplies out of their pay), but this left soldiers at the mercy of the official issue for the quality of items, and removed any possibility of supplementing pay by beingcareful or frugal with the official issue.

{{nocomments}}
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~& CategoryEncyclopaedia, CategoryGondor
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